I think there was a thread a while back about crating - and it got quite heated.
Perhaps the answer is that there is no answer. There are however good owners and not so good ones. The real question is whether the use of a crate is to suit the owner, or for the good of the dog.
In my old job (visiting host families) I came across a lot of people who used crates. The good ones allowed the dog to use it as a refuge - somewhere it could go when it wanted privacy and peace and quiet - and usually the door was left open. I was also horrified to find a couple of people who caged their dog for long periods while they went out - in case it damaged their home or messed.
Many years ago - I shared an office with an active toddler and a young dog. The dog went gratefully into the play pen when it needed quiet time - away from the child!